Modularization helps to provide clarity about the structure and variance of the respective product. It also provides a set of "parts" that are much easier to view and use. Therefore, the product is considered and analyzed in two aspects.
Engineering view: The product is decomposed into its components, wherein a component is not to be understood in the sense of the mechanical construction, but as a functional component. This process essentially follows the building structure and leads to reusable, functional units that can be used in other products as well.
Customer view: The properties, capabilities and options of the product are classified from the customer's point of view. The classification leads to structured components with characteristics that enable the product to be configured.
The two aspects lead to different structures of the modules and often result in different characteristics of the modules. The fine art of modularization is to bring the results of the two aspects together into a single model.
The result is an abstract model of a product with clear rules and reusable modules. With such a model, the efficiency of the entire value creation process from sale to delivery can be significantly increased.
The number of attributes and the variety of their possible values is an indicator of the complexity of the module. Experience shows that complex modules can usually be broken down into other simpler submodules. The simpler modules then form the components of the complex one.